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HydroCAD Stormwater Modeling - Since 1986

Outlet Devices
Weirs Orifice Flow Culverts Vortex Valves Dam Breach Pumps Delayed Outlet Skimmers Exfiltration Special Outlet Outlet Analysis

Outlet Device Options

HydroCAD provides a wide range of basic pond outlet devices, including orifice flow, weirs, culverts, tubes, siphons, and skimmers.  These may be used individually to model simple outlets, or combined in various arrangements to model more complex outlets, such as a riser structure or notched weir, or even flow through rock-fill dams.  HydroCAD can also be used to model active outlet devices, such as pumps, or time-varying outlets such as a dam breach or delayed outlet.  Each pond can have an unlimited number of outlet devices.

Many new outlet devices were added in HydroCAD-10, including tubes, siphons, asymmetrical weirs, constant-flow devices (such as floating weirs), and even a progressive dam breach.  A direct channel outlet was added in HydroCAD 10.1.

For devices than cannot be modeled with one of the standard outlet devices listed above, a special outlet can be used to define a custom stage-discharge curve.  HydroCAD also includes a library of predefined rating curves for certain proprietary devices, allowing them to be easily modeled with a special outlet.  Details here.

Click for complete self-training materialsOutlet Calculations

Complete details of the hydraulics calculations are provided in the HydroCAD Reference Manual, as well as the built-in Help system.  Just click the help button on the outlet selection screen, or on a specific outlet device.

Outlet Device Routing

The flow from each outlet device is routed to a specific node outflow.  By default, most devices are routed to primary.  This causes their flow to be directed to the primary outflow arrow on the routing diagram.  If desired, individual devices can also be routed to secondary or tertiary.  This causes their flow to be calculated and reported separately, and makes it available as a separate outflow on the routing diagram.

Any number of devices can be routed to each outflow.  When several devices are routed to the same outflow, their individual flows are combined and routed together.

Flows that are not subject to further routing (such as exfiltration), are usually routed to the discarded outflow.  The device routing can also be used to construct compound outlet structures, such as a riser.

Outlet Device Reporting

Click here for details on the outlet device analysis.

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